NI-2 UNIT-4

ACTIVITY 1

EXPRESSING OBLIGATION, LACK OF OBLIGATION, PROHIBITION –

HAVE TO (external obligation)/MUST (personal obligation), DON’T HAVE TO/NEEDN’T, MUSTN’T

KEY:

2. don’t have to pay   3. mustn’t smoke      4. have to drive/must drive   5. must wear/have to wear     6. don’t have to go/needn’t go     7. don’t have to pay/needn’t pay   8. must wear   9. mustn’t park     10. must be     11. mustn’t use     12.  mustn’t play

ACTIVITY 2

TALKING ABOUT THE PAST – REVISION PAST TENSES – GAP FILLING EXERCISE

Fill the gaps in this letter with the appropriate form of the verb in parentheses. Most of the verbs are in a past tense as the letter speaks about vacation experiences in the past. Read the letter through once to make sure you have understood the general context of the letter, and then begin filling in the gaps. Be careful to pay attention to the various time relationships between the verbs.

Dear Jason,

Thank you so much for your recent letter. I really _____ (enjoy, read) about your holiday in Spain. It sounds like you _____ (have) a wonderful vacation. Let me tell you about our summer holiday in Greece!

The flight to Greece _____ (go) smoothly. However, we had some problems with the ferry in Athens! We _____ (book) a ferry crossing two weeks before we _____ (leave) and arrived at the port with our tickets in hand. However, the ferry _____ (be) nowhere in sight! We rushed about the port _____ (try) to find the ferry, but no one _____ (ever hear) of the ferry lines! Finally, after we _____ (wait) for about four hours, a man _____ (tell) us that the ferry line _____ (change) owners and had a new name and kindly _____ (direct) us to the correct ferry. Well, we were pretty lucky as the ferry _____ (prepare) to depart that very moment! We hopped on board and _____ (drink) a beer to calm our nerves.

After that, the vacation really _____ (begin) to be fun. We arrived in Sifnos (one of the many marvelous Greek islands) and _____ (find) our apartment. The apartment _____ (be located) directly on the beach with a marvellous view of the sea. We _____ (stay) in a small village which _____ (have) about 200 inhabitants during the year, but _____ (swell) to over 2,000 during the summer holiday months. We _____ (spend) our days reading, swimming, napping and having a very relaxing time indeed. We also _____ (take) a number of long walks on the island.

I’ll always remember one walk in particular: We _____ (wake up) early that morning so as to get an early start. I _____ (make) coffee when my brother-in-law, who _____ (join) us in Sifnos, _____ (burst) in saying, “Susan _____ (be) ill and we have to go to the doctor’s”. We _____ (get into) the car and, after a short journey up the road the nearest doctor’s, Susan got the medicine she _____ (need). We _____ (return) to our apartment and Susan went to bed for the day. Daryn, my brother-in-law, and I _____ (decide) to go on our hike even though we _____ (lose) a few hours going to the doctor. By that time, the sun _____ (rise) high in the sky and we _____ (set off) in blistering heat. A slight breeze _____ (blow) so we really _____ (not notice) the heat. After we _____ (walk) for about an hour, the wind suddenly _____ (stop) and we found ourselves alone in the countryside without a drop of water. We decided we _____(keep) walking as we were sure to find somewhere to stop and have a drink and a rest. Unfortunately, as we later _____ (discover), the closest village was another five kilometers away. We _____ (carry on) in the boiling sun until we finally reached the village. We _____ (go) into the nearest bar to have something to drink. It was then that I _____ (realize) that I _____ (leave) my wallet in the apartment, so I _____ (rush) to get out the door and go on the hike! We were 15 kilometers from our apartment and _____ (hike) through 100 degree heat and _____ (not have) a dime (well, a drachma actually!) to buy ourselves something to drink! Luckily, the people of the island are really friendly, so we _____ (explain) our situation and the owner _____ (offer) us a Coke on the house. I don’t think I _____ (ever enjoy) a drink so much in all my life.

The rest of the vacation was spent relaxing. We thoroughly enjoyed ourselves and _____ (already plan) our next vacation in Greece in two years’ time.

I hope you and Barbara are well. Write me soon.

KEY:

Dear Jason,

Thank you so much for your recent letter. I really ENJOYED READING about your holiday in Spain. It sounds like you HAD a wonderful vacation. Let me tell you about our summer holiday in Greece!

The flight to Greece WENT smoothly. However, we had some problems with the ferry in Athens! We HAD BOOKED a ferry crossing two weeks before we LEFT and arrived at the port with our tickets in hand. However, the ferry WAS nowhere in sight! We rushed about the port TRYING to find the ferry, but no one HAD EVER HEARD of the ferry lines! Finally, after we HAD BEEN WAITING for about four hours, a man TOLD us that the ferry line HAD CHANGED owners and had a new name and kindly DIRECTED us to the correct ferry. Well, we were pretty lucky as the ferry WAS PREPARING to depart that very moment! We hopped on board and DRANK a beer to calm our nerves.

After that, the vacation really BEGAN to be fun. We arrived in Sifnos (one of the many marvelous Greek islands) and FOUND our apartment. The apartment WAS LOCATED directly on the beach with a marvellous view of the sea. We STAYED in a small village which HAS about 200 inhabitants during the year, but SWELLS to over 2,000 during the summer holiday months. We SPENT our days reading, swimming, napping and having a very relaxing time indeed. We also TOOK a number of long walks on the island.

I’ll always remember one walk in particular: We WOKE UP early that morning so as to get an early start. I WAS MAKING coffee when my brother-in-law, who HAD JOINED us in Sifnos, BURST in saying, “Susan IS ill and we have to go to the doctor’s”. We GOT INTO the car and, after a short journey up the road the nearest doctor’s, Susan got the medicine she NEEDED. We RETURNED to our apartment and Susan went to bed for the day. Daryn, my brother-in-law, and I DECIDED to go on our hike even though we HAD LOST a few hours going to the doctor. By that time, the sun HAD RISEN high in the sky and we SET OFF in blistering heat. A slight breeze WAS BLOWING so we really DIDN’T NOTICE the heat. After we HAD WALKED for about an hour, the wind suddenly STOPPED and we found ourselves alone in the countryside without a drop of water. We decided we SHOULD KEEP walking as we were sure to find somewhere to stop and have a drink and a rest. Unfortunately, as we later DISCOVERED, the closest village was another five kilometers away. We CARRIED in the boiling sun until we finally reached the village. We WENT into the nearest bar to have something to drink. It was then that I REALIZED that I HAD LEFT my wallet in the apartment, so I RUSHED to get out the door and go on the hike! We were 15 kilometers from our apartment and HAD HIKED through 100 degree heat and DIDN’T HAVE a dime (well, a drachma actually!) to buy ourselves something to drink! Luckily, the people of the island are really friendly, so we EXPLAINED our situation and the owner OFFERED us a Coke on the house. I don’t think I HAD/HAVE EVER ENJOYED a drink so much in all my life.

The rest of the vacation was spent relaxing. We thoroughly enjoyed ourselves and ARE ALREADY PLANNING our next vacation in Greece in two years’ time.

I hope you and Barbara are well. Write me soon.

ACTIVITY 3

INFORMATION GAP EXERCISE

ASK YOUR PARTNER QUESTIONS TO COMPLETE THE INFORMATION. YOUR PARTNER WILL ALSO ASK YOU QUESTIONS TO COMPLETE THE INFORMATION HE/SHE HASN’T GOT.

STUDENT A:

RUNNER RUIZ

On ……………………, 1980, 23-year-old …………….. Ruiz came first in the Boston marathon. She won the race in the third-fastest time ever recorded for a female runner (………….. hours, …………… minutes, …………… seconds).

However, the organisers were suspicious, because they noticed that when she crossed the finishing line, she …………………………….at all.

When they investigated, they found out that none of the course officials had seen her passing checkpoints. …………………………… didn’t remember seeing her at all.

Then a few spectators said that they had seen Ruiz join the race just for the last kilometre. She had simply sprinted from there to the …………………………………

The marathon organisers took away Ruiz’s medal and gave it to …………………………………, who had been second in the race.

Later, they also discovered that Ruiz had been cheating for a long time She had cheated in many races, including the ……………………… marathon, the race she used to qualify for the Boston event.

INFORMATION GAP ACTIVITY

ASK YOUR PARTNER QUESTIONS TO COMPLETE THE INFORMATION. YOUR PARTNER WILL ALSO ASK YOU QUESTIONS TO COMPLETE THE INFORMATION HE/SHE HASN’T GOT.

STUDENT B:

RUNNER RUIZ

 

On April 22, 1980, ………………..-year-old Rosie Ruiz came first in the …………….marathon. She won the race in the third-fastest time ever recorded for a female runner (2 hours, 31 minutes, 56 seconds).

However, the ………………….. were suspicious, because they noticed that when she crossed the finishing line, she was not sweating at all.

When they investigated, they found out that …………………………………………………. had seen her passing checkpoints. Other competitors didn’t remember seeing her at all.

Then a few spectators said that they had seen Ruiz …………………………… just for the last kilometre. She had simply sprinted from there to the finishing line.

The marathon organisers took away ……………………… and gave it to Jacqueline Gareau, who had been second in the race.

Later, they also discovered that Ruiz ……………………………… for a long time She had cheated in many races, including the New York marathon, the race she used to qualify for the Boston event.

COMPLETE TEXT:

On April 22, 1980, 23-year-old Rosie Ruiz came first in the Boston marathon. She won the race in the third-fastest time ever recorded for a female runner (2 hours, 31 minutes, 56 seconds).

However, the organisers were suspicious, because they noticed that when she crossed the finishing line, she was not sweating at all.

When they investigated, they found out that none of the course officials had seen her passing checkpoints. Other competitors didn’t remember seeing her at all.

Then a few spectators said that they had seen Ruiz join the race just for the last kilometre. She had simply sprinted from there to the finishing line.

The marathon organisers took away Ruiz’s medal and gave it to Jacqueline Gareau, who had been second in the race.

Later, they also discovered that Ruiz had been cheating for a long time She had cheated in many races, including the New York marathon, the race she used to qualify for the Boston event.

ACTIVITY 4

PRONUNCIATION

Short Vowel /i/

Short Vowel /e/

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